Submarine communications cables laid on the seabed form the foundation of the global international telecommunications network. International law, in particular the law of the sea, has recognized the freedom to lay submarine cables and carry out related operations and has imposed certain obligations on States with regard to the protection of submarine cables. This article examines international law in relation to submarine cables and examines various issues related to both law and governmental practice for submarine cables. He argues that these problems are examples of the traditional challenges facing the law of the sea; That is, balancing and adapting competing uses of marine space. It concludes that an important step in addressing these issues is to increase consultation and cooperation between cable companies and governments, and that efforts should focus on the creation of such mechanisms. The International Law Commission was established by the General Assembly in 1947 to promote the progressive development and codification of international law. The Commission is composed of 34 members who collectively represent the principal legal systems of the world and act as experts in their individual capacity rather than as representatives of their Governments. They deal with matters relating to the regulation of relations between States and frequently consult with the International Committee of the Red Cross, the International Court of Justice and the specialized agencies of the United Nations, as appropriate. The Commission also frequently prepares drafts on certain aspects of international law. The principal organ of the United Nations for the settlement of disputes is the International Court of Justice. Also known as the World Court, it was founded in 1946. Since its establishment, the Court has examined more than 170 cases, delivered numerous judgments and rendered advisory opinions at the request of United Nations agencies. Most cases have been dealt with in plenary, but since 1981 six cases have been referred to special chambers at the request of the parties.
Five years after 11 September, the special issue takes stock by examining the role that prosecutions and sanctions can and can still play in the fight against contemporary internationalized terrorism, both at the international and national levels. The collection of essays combines different perspectives on the subject. Most of them are drafted by eminent experts in international law or criminal law from different countries, some by practitioners, such as the Chief of the Terrorism Prevention Division of the United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention. The sequence of articles in the special issue ranges from the general definition of torture, to the defense of the crime of torture, to remedies under U.S. and international law. The idea of a permanent international tribunal to prosecute crimes against humanity was first discussed at the United Nations in the context of the adoption of the 1948 Genocide Convention. For many years, differences of opinion have prevented further development. In 1992, the General Assembly mandated the International Law Commission to prepare a draft statute for such a court. The massacres in Cambodia, the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda have made the need even more urgent. In its judgments, the Court has dealt with international disputes concerning economic rights, transit rights, non-use of force, non-interference in the internal affairs of States, diplomatic relations, hostage-taking, the right of asylum and nationality. States shall submit such disputes to the Court in search of an impartial solution to their legal differences.
By peacefully resolving issues such as land borders, maritime boundaries and territorial sovereignty, the Court has often helped to prevent the escalation of disputes. Can torture ever be justified? This is just one of the topics covered in the recent special issue of the Journal of International Criminal Justice entitled „Law as Cruelty: Torture as an International Crime“. Fifteen years after the entry into force of the Rome Statute, the ICC is a mature institution. It has begun to develop the legal basis provided by States, including by developing policy documents to create greater transparency on key procedures or to highlight certain areas of work. In recent years, this initiative has been largely led by the Public Prosecutor`s Office. Strategy papers now provide public insight into key issues such as situational selection, case selection, sexual and gender-based crimes, children, and the court`s treatment of victims. This special issue aims to launch a broad academic debate on these and future policies, which will provide an important opportunity for ongoing dialogue between the Court and its constituents. The latest special issue of JICJ examines the relationship between hunger and the broader concepts of hunger and food insecurity and identifies challenges in implementing relevant international legislation. Laws organizes special editions to create collections of articles on specific topics. The goal is to build a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research findings and develop new ideas and research directions.
Special issues are led by guest editors who are experts in the field and oversee the editorial process of articles. Articles published in a special issue are summarized on a special page of the journal`s website. If you have any questions about a special edition, please contact the publishers. „Sixty years after the signing of the Geneva Conventions, the regime of serious breaches remains a key element of the architecture of modern international criminal law. This special issue of the journal marks the 60th anniversary of the heavy regime by inviting eminent academics, practitioners and legal advisers to discuss the various components of this once revolutionary criminal regime. Newspapers are rich and diverse [and] our goals are many and ambitious. Buy special editions from just £22. More details. The United Nations has played a leading role in efforts to promote international humanitarian law. The Council is increasingly committed to the protection of civilians in armed conflict, the promotion of human rights and the protection of children in times of war. The authors invited to contribute to this conference come from different backgrounds: some are historians, others are lawyers, journalists or judges; Other contributors are people who were involved in the Rwandan tragedy at some point and in different capacities. The result is a multifaceted debate that should shed light on the genocide in Rwanda and the complex, contradictory and ultimately disappointing response to it at the national and international levels.
– Excerpt from the editorial, by Paola Gaeta In a sense, we hope that this topic will lead to a better understanding of the history of serious violations and their relationship to other categories of war crimes in contemporary international criminal law. will promote. At the same time, this issue will serve as a reference point for practitioners committed to fulfilling the obligation to prosecute war crimes, thereby furthering the aspirations that originally underpinned the regime of grave breaches. – Excerpt from the introduction, by James G. Stewart. This special issue examines how international criminal justice responds to the communication and disinformation dilemmas that have emerged recently and will continue to haunt the field. This special issue brings together leading researchers, representatives of human rights organizations, historians and young researchers working in the field. The opening piece places attempts to criminalize aggression in a historical context, drawing on archival documents from the interwar period.
Some speakers discussed the far-reaching implications of the Kampala compromise on the principle of complementarity; the independence of the judiciary and equality before the law; contract law; and the development of customary international law, in particular the rules governing the use of force. Other articles deal with important issues that were not discussed at the Review Conference, such as the ambiguous place of „quasi-States“, the uncertain status of agreements and the possible contours of individual civil liability in the event of aggression.