An investigation by Business Insider found that Watts and Jewell are the same person. Watts` profile picture was a photo of Jewell, and his posts described life in Ecuador, where Jewell lives. This means that it is illegal to market it as a medicine in both countries. Guernsey has its own legislature, and under the Guernsey Act it is illegal to market or sell an unapproved medicine from or within the Bailiwick. The emails also contain instructions on how to pay a banking company called Vigor Life in Smolyan, a Bulgarian ski resort near the Greek-Bulgarian border where Jewell once operated a hotel. The advice is not to buy medicines online from an unregistered pharmacy, as you will not know what you are getting, where they come from or if they can be taken safely. The dose may be too high or too low, or the product may be contaminated. The result of editors not suppressing erroneous searches results in even more articles, based on the theories promoted in the original refuted research. Here is a classic example where two of Yamamoto`s work on GcMAF were referenced by researchers in a recent paper titled „Potential Role of GcMAF in Suppressing the Severity of COVID-19-Induced Immune Responses: A Lesson from HIV.“ Next, we analyzed the phagocytosis activation activity of Gc proteins synthesized in ExpiCHO-S cells. U937 cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium and differentiated into macrophage-like cells by TPA therapy. Next, macrophages derived from U937 cells were activated by exposure to purified Cc proteins and LPS (a typical macrophage-activating chemical). Since the phagocytic activity of macrophages induced by GcMAF derived from Gc1F is significantly increased at a concentration of 10 ng/ml37, we evaluated the mean phagocytosis index (API) of GC proteins at this concentration.

As shown in Figure 6A, the API was increased by the addition of Gc proteins and the activation levels of Gc1F and Gc1S were equivalent to those of the LPS used as a positive control, although the level of Gc2 activation was slightly lower. Next, we investigated the effect of deglycosylation by comparing the activation activities of Gc-1F macrophages of ExpiCHO-S with a truncated structure (GalNAc-Thr420, positive control), Gc-1F of CHO with an elongated glycoform (trisaccharide-Thr420) and Gc-1F of CHO with a truncated glycoform (after deglycosylation reaction, GalNAc-Thr420). As shown in Fig. 6B, the active ingredients of Gc-1F of truncated structure ExpiCHO-S and CHO Gc-1F with truncated glycoform increased in the same way, while activation by Gc-1F of CHO with elongated glycoform was negligible, suggesting that CHO Gc-1F is activated by deglycosylation. We further confirmed that the API was dose-dependent increased to 100 ng/ml for Gc1F, Gc1S and Gc2 (Fig. 6C-1, -2, -3). The actual values obtained in the macrophage activation test are given in Supplementary Table 1. Saisai-Mirai also sells its GcMAF brew from another website, Heart Products Online Pharmacy, and the competition to sell GcMAF is so aggressive in the alternative healthcare industry that it has made an effort on its website to discredit a competitor, gcmafplus (see below), by issuing the following ironic warning. Two questions for participating publications.

Why did you refuse to remove Yamamoto`s flawed papers, and where is the peer review process that would identify the research in the aforementioned article as flawed? Allowing imperfect and imperfect studies to persist puts the public at risk. Cancer Clinical Research: „The Promise to Attack Macrophages in Cancer Treatment.“ Ruggiero, M., Reinwald, H. & Pacini, S. Is chondroitin sulfate responsible for the biological effects attributed to GC-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMaf)? Med. Hypotheses 94, 126-131 (2016). Mohamad, S. B., Nagasawa, H., Uto, Y. & Hori, H. Preparation of the macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) derived from Gc proteins and its structural characterization and biological activities.

22, 4297-4300 (2002). During his trial, the court heard that some of his GcMAF clients complained of side effects, including headaches, nausea and abdominal pain – one of which required multiple hospital visits. Mohamad, S. B. et al. Gc-Protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF): Isoelectric focusing pattern and tumoricidal activity. 23, 4451-4457 (2003). Borges, C. R. et al. Characterization of proteins in human population.

Blinking. 56, 202-211 (2010). He says his health and social care department continues to work closely with the MHRA regarding the investigation. ExpiCHO-S cells (ThermoFisher Scientific Co. The ExpiCHO-S cells, catalogue number: A29127) were cultured in a 25 ml serum-free ExpiCHO expression medium in an incubator at 37°C with a humidified atmosphere of 8% CO2 in air on an orbital agitation platform with an orbital agitation platform that rotated at 125 rpm to a final density of 6 viable cells/ml. A plasmid of GC expression (15 Î1/4g) (pcDNA3.4-TOPOGc1F-His, pcDNA3.4-TOPOGc1S-His, pcDNA3.4-TOPOGc2-His or pcDNA3.4-TOPOmouse Gc) was diluted with 1.0 ml Opti PRO SFM (ThermoFisher Scientific Co.) and mixed with 80 Î 1/4l ExpiFectamine CHO Reagent (ThermoFisher Scientific Co.), previously diluted with 920 Î 1/4l Opti PRO SFM. This mixture was incubated for 5 min at room temperature and placed in the ExpiCHO-S cell culture flask. The cells were incubated overnight, then 150 to 1/4 L of ExpiCHO Enhancer and 6 ml of ExpiCHO Feed (ThermoFisher Scientific Co.) were added, and the suspended culture was continued for 6 to 8 days (depending on the vendor`s protocol, cell culture may continue for up to 14 or 15 days). We then harvested the cells and media and analyzed the expression levels and sugar changes of the GC proteins. It is unclear whether GcMAF is working.

The studies that have been conducted so far have involved a very small number of people. Some of them contained only one person. Larger studies are needed to prove that this treatment works for cancer and is safe. Yamamoto, N. & Homma, S. Vitamin D3 binding protein (group-specific component) is a precursor to the macrophage-activating signaling factor of lysophosphatidylcholine-treated lymphocytes. United States 88, 8539-8543 (1991). Gc proteins are converted to GcMAF by deglycosylation; In particular, it has been hypothesized that inflammation leads to selective hydrolysis of galactose and sialic acid of Gc1 proteins by î²-galactosidase of stimulated B lymphocytes and sialidase of T13,25,26 lymphocytes, wherein GalNAc remains covalently bound to the threonine residue (Fig. 1). Reported activities of GcMAF include macrophage activation27, antiangiogenesis activity28,29,30 and antitumor activity31,32,33. In fact, human blood-derived GcMAF has been shown to be effective against metastatic colorectal cancer, metastatic breast cancer and prostate cancer.34,35,36 The drug GcMAF is therefore a possible option for immunotherapy and antiangiogenic therapy against cancer.

However, biological studies and clinical trials with GcMAF have yielded conflicting results, probably because most cancer labs and clinics have produced their own GcMAFs using different methods, although all are based on sequential deglycosylation of Gc proteins made from human blood. Therefore, there is a need for a methodology to provide a consistent large-scale product for further studies. Some foreign customers had paid nearly $1,000 a month for the drug, believing it would cure their autistic children. Since about 2008, GcMAF has been promoted as a cure for cancer,[5] HIV,[6] autism,[7] and other diseases. [8]. Berman, H. M. et al. The protein database.

Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Cristallogr. 58, 899-907 (2002). Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter – what matters in science, every day for free in your inbox. Access this article for 1 day for: £30 / $37 / €33 (excl. VAT) Interestingly, the website states the following in its disclaimer; If you have been caught by the GcMAF scam, please don`t feel bad.